Synonyms: A. senegal Willd. syn. A. verek Guillem. & Perr.
Common Name: Rfaudraksha, Gum Acacia, Gum Arabic Tree, or Gum Senegal Tree
Altitude: upto 1500 ft
Seeds collection period: Feb- March
Seed longevity: 1-2 years
Acacia senegal is a deciduous shrub, growing to 15 m tall and usually branched from the ground. Branches fork repeatedly and in mature trees commonly form a rounded, flat-topped crown. The trunk may vary in diameter up to about 30 cm. The bark is greyish-white, although in old trees growing in the open it may be dark, scaly and thin, showing the bright green cambium layer just below the surface if scratched with a nail. The slash is mottled red. Powerful hooked thorns, 3-5 mm long, with enlarged bases appear at the nodes of the branches, usually in 3s. They are sharp, with some pointing forwards and others backwards.
A. senegal is presumably insect pollinated. Flowering starts from June to July in Sudan, December to January in South Africa, February to March in Pakistan, and August to December in India. The wind shakes seeds from the dehiscent pods, and sheet wash and grazing animals may extend the seed dispersal range.