Australian Red Cedar (called also Toon, Suren or Indian Mahogany), Toona ciliata is a forest tree in the family Meliaceae which grows throughout southern Asia from Afghanistan to Papua New Guinea and Australia. In Australia its natural habitat is now extensively cleared subtropical rain forests of New South Wales and Queensland. The Australian population was formerly treated as distinct species under the name T. australis. The species can grow to around 60 m in height and its trunk can reach 3m in girth. The largest recorded T. ciliata tree in Australia grew near Nulla Nulla Creek, west of Kempsey, New South Wales and was felled in 1883.
The southern most limit of natural distribution is on basaltic soils, growing west of the Princes Highway near the village of Turmeil, south of Ulladulla, southern Illawarra, NSW. It also naturally occurs at Norfolk Island.
It is one of Australia's few native deciduous trees. The timber is red in colour, easy to work and very highly valued. It was used extensively for furniture, wood panelling and construction, including shipbuilding, and was referred to as "Red Gold" by Australian settlers. Heavily and unsustainably exploited in the 19th Century and early 20th Century, almost all the large trees have been cut out and the species is essentially commercially extinct. However, the timber is relatively fast growing and following on from a wave of tree cutting in the 1950s, regrowth and timber from forestry sources currently provides trees up to 1 metre in diameter for the furniture trade in Australia and timber is not difficult to source.
Timber is currently also harvested in New Guinea. Although it is not generally a viable plantation species, trees are regularly harvested by Forestry in the Atherton region of Queensland. It grows best in an environment with high light levels, however in the relative darkness of the rain forest under story, it is less susceptible to attack by the Cedar Tip Moth.